-esque, eque picturésque, discotéque
Greek prefixes n?nometer, télephone, par?meter
Many Latin prefixes may be unstressed, or contain a long vowel that has a secondary stress. Only in very short words, with only short syllables following the prefix, would the prefix take on main stress.
Latin prefixes ad-, co-, con-, de-, dis-, e-, en-, ex-, in-, mid-, ob-, pre-, re-, se-, sub adj?in, ?djunct, dèfér, disd?in, préjudice, rèimb?rse
2-5-2 Neutral suffixes
According to Kent Lee 200, neutral suffixes do not affect the main word stress, and don’t cause the stress to shift when they are added. These include the grammatical (“weak”) endings. Most word-building suffixes in English are neutral suffixes.
-ed def?brolàte def?brolàted
-ing réify réifying
-s, -es, -‘s, -s’ b?tch b?tches
-er (ADJ) prétty préttier
-est (ADJ) p?thy p?thiest
-able acknowledge akn?wledgeable
-age cover c?verage
-al (NOUN) p?rt p?rtal
-ary vision v?sionary
-!te (NOUN/ADJ) afféction afféctionate
-er, -or (NOUN) ?perate ?perator
-ful w?nder w?nderful
-hood ch?ld ch?ldhood
-ible corr?de corr?dible
-ice pre+jud- préjudice
-ile, ?le d?ct d?ct?le
-ish coquétte coquéttish
-ism functional f?nctionalism
-ist generative génerativist
-ize r?tional r?tionalist
-less agénda agéndaless
-ly abstruse abstrusely
-ment ackn?wledge ackn?wledgement
-most ?nner innermost
-oid pl?sma pl?smoid
-ship ass?stant ass?stantship
-some b?ther bothersome
-th (numeral) th?rty th?rtieth
-ward héaven héavenward
-wise contr?ry contr?riwise
-y (ADJ) chéese chéesy
2-6 Derivation in lexical morphology
According to Francis Katamba in Modern Linguistics Morphology 1993, primary affixes (e.g., -ic in phonemic), which are phonologically non-neutral, are attached first at Stratum 1. But the processes of compounding, as well as the attachment of secondary affixes (e.g., -ly as in widely), which are phonetically neutral, happen at Stratum 2. The underived root is like the kernel of the word (as in a. below). Stratum 1 takes the root as the base to which non-neutral affixes are attached (see b.). Then Stratum 2 takes the root plus stratum 1 affixes as its input (see b.). A neutral consequence of assuming that the strata in the lexicon are ordered in this way is that Stratum 1 affixes are closer to the root of the word, and neutral affixes (Stratum 2) are added as an outer layer:
b. [S1 affix [root] S1 affix]
c. [S2 affix [S1 affix [root] S1 affix] S2 affix]
We use the abbreviations ‘S1’ and ‘S2’ for ‘Stratum 1 affix’ and ‘Stratum 2 affix’ respectively. Let us look at the following concrete examples containing the derivational suffixes -(i)an and -ism:
a. [root] b. [[root]S1]
shakespeare Shakespeare-an (Shakespearian)
c. [[[root] S1] S2] d. [[[root] S2] S1]
(based on Kiparsky, 1983:3)
You will have made a number of interesting observations about -(i)an:
i. When they appear without any suffix in a.., these words are stressed on the first syllable.
ii. The suffix -(i)an is non-neutral because:
a. It is pre-accenting: when it is present, stress moves to the syllable immediately before -(i)an.
b. It affects the segmental phonology of the root to which it is attached in all the examples except Shakespeare where only stress shifts. Contrast:
Mendel [‘mend?] Mendelian [men’di:lj?n]
Mongol [‘m????] Mongolian [m??’??ulj?n]
grammar [‘?r?m?] grammarian [gr?’me?rj?n]
Shakespeare [‘?e?ksp??] Shakespearian [?e?k’sp??rj?n]
Note: The fact that, unlike the other words, Shakespeare is a native word may have something to do with its somewhat atypical behaviour.
iii. By contrast, -ism is a neutral suffix. Stratum stays on the syllable it was on before -ism was added. Its presence does not affect the segmental phonology of the root to which it was attached.
The theory predicts that Stratum 1 affixes come closer to the root than Stratum 2 affixes. In other words, Stratum 2 affixes appear on the outer layer and Stratum 1 affixes are in the inner layer. This is the case in our data. In c. the Stratum 1 non-neutral suffix -(i)an comes immediately after the root and the Stratum 2 -ism is attached on the outer layer. If precedes Stratum 1 -(i)an as in d., the result is an inadmissible word.
We have established the motivation for keeping morphemes on different strata in the lexicon. In the lexicon affixes are listed with their meaning, information about the bases to which they attach the grammatical category of the word resulting from affixing them as well as the stratum at which they are found. This last point is important because there are many aspects of the behaviour of an affix morpheme that are not peculiar to it but are shared by other affixes found at the same stratum. Derivational word-formation takes place at Stratum 1 and Stratum 2. Non-neutral processes are found at Stratum 1 while neutral ones are found at Stratum 2.
Zahra Ghorbani Shemshadsara 2011 conducted a research that its topic was: EFL Learner’s Awareness of Stress-Moving vs. Neutral Suffixes. This research was conducted to examine the amount of awareness and skill in pronouncing two types of words: words with stress moving suffix and words with neutral suffix. The result showed that stress-moving suffixes are more difficult to learn than neutral suffixes. As a result, it is suggested that this feature of stress pattern in the English language be explicitly taught and practiced in the classroom. Otherwise, the learners may not notice such delicate differences in stress patterns of words due to addition of stress-moving suffixes. Also, as far as research on pronunciation is concerned, the present study can stimulate more investigations on similar problems at both segmental and suprasegmentals levels of pronunciation in EFL classes. For instance, some interlanguage studies can reveal the pattern of pronunciation development in EFL learners with different L1 backgrounds. Furthermore, there is a need to try different strategies for teaching pronunciation to discover more effective pedagogical tools or means for the learners to promote their pronunciation.
Another research that was conducted about this area is Developing Materials for Teaching Word Stress in English by Jonathan J Pierrel 2010. For any polysyllabic word in English, a particular syllable is pronounced with “greater prominence or loudness” (e.g. the word linguistics has a primary stress on the penultimate syllable.) This defines word-stress (Teschner & Whitley, 2004). While the distribution of word-stress is very regular in some languages – e.g. virtually always on the first syllable in Finnish or Czech, always on the last syllable in French (Celce-Murcia et al, 1996) – word stress rules are much more complex in English (Halle & Keyser, 1971) and present less regularity than for the languages cited above. The main objective of this creative project is to develop teaching materials on English word stress that will enable learners of English to predict which syllable in most English words will receive the primary word stress. Native speakers of English rely on word stress to recognize isolated words (Cooper et al, 2002; Sanders, Neville, & Woldorff, 2002; Slowiaczek, 1990), as well as words on the sentence level (Benrabah, 1997). Studying stress patterns in English is