categories of suffixes and the last section is derivation in lexical morphology.
2-2 Iranian Studies
In Iran there are studies in suffixes and pronunciation area. It can be mentioned EFL Learner’s Awareness of Stress-Moving vs. Neutral Suffixes was conducted by Zahra Ghorbani Shemshadsara in 2011 as the first research. She states that mastering pronunciation in EFL context, where direct access to native speaker is scarce, is a highly challenging objective for many language students in Iran. Stress as a suprasegmental feature, more specifically, poses its own problems, especially when suffixes are added to words. There are different types of suffixes, two of which are neutral (with no effect on word stress) and stress-moving (changing stress pattern). This research study intended to investigate the students’ awareness of stress patterns when (stress-moving and neutral) suffixes are added to words. This research was conducted to examine the amount of awareness and skill in pronouncing two types of words: words with stress moving suffix and words with neutral suffix. The result showed that stress-moving suffixes are more difficult to learn than neutral suffixes. As a result, it is suggested that this feature of stress pattern in the English language be explicitly taught and practiced in the classroom. Otherwise, the learners may not notice such delicate differences in stress patterns of words due to addition of stress-moving suffixes. Also, as far as research on pronunciation is concerned, the present study can stimulate more investigations on similar problems at both segmental and suprasegmental levels of pronunciation in EFL classes. For instance, some interlanguage studies can reveal the pattern of pronunciation development in EFL learners with different L1 backgrounds. Furthermore, there is a need to try different strategies for teaching pronunciation to discover more effective pedagogical tools or means for the learners to promote their pronunciation.
Another study concerning pronunciation is A Study of Factors Affecting EFL Learners’ English Pronunciation Learning and the Strategies for Instruction by Abbas Pourhosein Gilakjani (2012). In this study he states that pronunciation can be one of the most difficult parts of a language for EFL learners to master and one of the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the EFL classroom. All learners can do well in learning the pronunciation of a foreign language if the teacher and learner participate together in the total learning process. Success can be achieved if each has set individual teaching and learning goals. Pronunciation must be viewed as more than correct production of phonemes: it must be viewed in the same light as grammar, syntax, and discourse that is an important part of communication. Research has shown and current pedagogical thinking on pronunciation maintains that intelligible pronunciation is seen as an essential component of communicative competence. With this in mind, the teacher must then set obtainable aims that are applicable and suitable for the communication needs of the learner. The learner must also become part of the learning process, actively involved in their own learning. The content of the course should be integrated into the communication class, with the content emphasizing the teaching of suprasegmentals, linking pronunciation with listening comprehension, and allowing for meaningful pronunciation practice. With the teacher acting as a ‘speech coach’, rather than as a mere checker of pronunciation, the feedback given to the student can encourage learners to improve their pronunciation. If these criteria are met, all learners, within their learner unique aims, can be expected to do well learning the pronunciation of a foreign language.
A Descriptive Overview of Pronunciation Instruction in Iranian High Schools was done by Hesamoddin Shahriari & Beheshteh Shakhsi Dastgahian in 2014. According to this study, among 20 different methods of teaching pronunciation which are used more frequently by Iranian English teachers, imitation as oral repetition has shown the first and foremost place. Using different kinds of materials such as pictures, making students use dictionaries to see the correct pronunciation, and showing the organs of articulation through pictorial diagrams are the second, third, and fourth effective factors respectively. By descriptive statistics for male and female teachers, men show a higher mean in using oral repetition and also in using instructional materials for teaching pronunciation. Those teachers with higher degrees do better in using different techniques in general and oral repetition in particular. Furthermore, teachers having a higher degree and more work experience have better understanding which method to choose for teaching pronunciation to their students which is simpler and easier. It is assumed that although frequent techniques used in our schools by male and female teachers are taken away by other teaching pronunciation techniques introduced by some researchers such as Nation and Newton, there will still remain a question to what extent these techniques are helpful in ran’s pedagogical system. Future studies may focus on the roles of these techniques in the achievement of Iranian EFL learners.
The last study to be mentioned here The Effect of Stress Pattern on Iranian English Language Learners’ Pronunciation by Lida Vafaei, Islamic Azad University of Takestan, Iran in 2013. This study investigated the stress pattern of Iranian English language learners’ pronunciation. Participants were 30 intermediate EFL learners studying English in Jouya English institute in Tehran. In order to measure the level of the ability of the students in pronouncing the correct words in terms of their stress, 80 words selected from participants’ text books. The words were divided into four groups according to the number of syllables and the place of stress; the first group consisted of 20 two-syllable words with stress on the first syllable, the second group was a 20 two-syllable words with stress is on the second syllable, the third group consisted of 20 three-syllable words with the stress was on the first syllable, and Lastly the fourth group included 20 three-syllable words with stress is on the second syllable. Participants were asked to read the words which were selected as a production test. Participants’ performance was audio taped to find out on which syllable of the word the stress is put. The results revealed that participants were more successful in pronouncing the words whose stress was on the first syllable in comparison to those having stress on the second syllable.
2-3 Foreign Studies
Although there is no any research and paper about suffixes and especially about pronunciation of the non-neutral suffixes; but there are some studies in pronunciation area as following.
The first one is done by Mathias B?rjesson on fall 2013 had conducted a research in pronunciation, its title is The Pronunciation of English by Somali L1 students in Sweden: Testing indications of phonetic transfer through Error Analysis and Contrastive Analysis. The main aim of the study was to investigate phonemic errors in relation to transfer seen from a didactic point of view. The material consisted of 10 Somali L1 students’ results on a pronunciation test and their answers to some interview questions. Four of the students were born in Sweden and six of them were born abroad. The results shown that the average Somali L1 student born outside of Sweden made approximately three times as many errors as the average Somali L1 student born in Sweden. The errors made by all students were shown to be related to both Somali, Swedish and the Somali-Swedish interlanguage. The results also shown that the Somali L1 students born outside of Sweden were the only ones who made errors that could not be linked to typical difficulties, so called non-typical errors.
Next research was conducted by Anitabarraza on July 2013 on Teaching Pronunciation to ESL Adult Learners. This paper aimed at reviewing the theory regarding second language learning and at finding evidence in previous research that adults are capable of learning a foreign language as successfully as children. In relation with pronunciation learning, there is evidence that adults may not acquire foreign sounds with the same accuracy as children do. However, it also possible to find within the seminal works in the field of learning theories that adults need a methodology that is different from the teaching methodology for children and that a change in the approach to teaching pronunciation may result in better acquisition of oral communicative skills in ESL adult learners, although the investigation done in the phonological area of ESL is scarce and further research in the field is needed.
The Relationship between Pronunciation Ability and Listening Ability is the other research which was done by Rika Purnama Sari on June 2012. The Relationship between Pronunciation Ability and Listening Ability of Employees in PT. PGN Area Batam Language involves a duality of patterning, as Hockett (1954) has noted. On the one hand, there are patterns that pertain to the way that sounds are organized; on the other, there are patterns that relate to hoe meanings are organized. Although language use dealing with patterns at both levels, it often seems as though the two are studied in relative isolation of one another. So, what is definition of language? Language is one system for human to communicate with other by speech and writing, so that human can represent