Dedication
This thesis work is dedicated to my husband who has been a constant source of support and encouragement during the challenges of graduate school and life. I am truly thankful for having you in my life.

Table of Contents

List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
Acknowledgment IV
Dedication V
Abstract 1

Chapter One: Introduction
1-1 Over view 3
1-2 Introduction 3
1-3 Statement of problem 7
1-4 Research questions 7
1-5 Research hypotheses 7
1-6 Significance of the study 8
1-7 Definitions of technical terms 8

Chapter Two: Literature Review
2-1 Overview 11
2-2 Iranian Studies 11
2-3 Foreign Studies 13
2-4 Theoretical base of the study 18
2-5Categories of Suffixes 20
2-5-1 Non-neutral (Strong) suffixes 21
2-5-2 Neutral suffixes 22
2-6 Derivation in lexical morphology 23

Chapter Three: Methodology
3-1 overview 29
3-2 Research questions 29
3-3 Research design 29
3-4 Participants 30
3-5 Instruments 31
3-5-1 Questionnaire 32
3-5-2 Reliability and Validity 32
3-6 Data collection procedures 32
3-7 Data analysis 33

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion
4-1 overview 35
4-2 Demographic information 35
4-3 Descriptive statistics 36
4-3-1 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions 37
4-3-2 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on gender 38
4-3-3 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on academic degree 40
4-3-4 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on the place of teaching English 42
4-3-5 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on teaching experience 44
4-4 Investigating research hypotheses by using inferential statistics 46
4-4-1 First Hypothesis: 47
4-4-2 Second Hypothesis: 47
4-4-3 Third Hypothesis: 48
4-4-4 Fourth Hypothesis: 49
4-5 Discussion 50

Chapter Five: Summary and Conclusion
5-1 overview 52
5-2 Summary 53
5-3 conclusion 54
5-4 Implications 55
5-5 limitations of the study 55
5-6 Suggestions for further studies 56
Appendix 57
Reference 68

List of Tables

Table 3-1 Background information about participants of the study 30
Table 4-1 Background information about participants of the study 36
Table 4-2 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions 37
Table 4-3 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on gender 39
Table 4-4 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on academic degree 41
Table 4-5 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on the place of teaching English 43
Table 4-6 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on teaching experience 45
Table 4-7 The results obtained by applying Man-whitney U Test 47
Table 4-8 The results obtained by applying Man-whitney U Test 48
Table 4-9 The results obtained by applying Man-whitney U Test 48
Table 4-10 The results obtained by applying Kruskal-Wallis Test 49

List of Figures

Figure 3-1 Background information about participants of the study 31
Figure 4-1 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions 38
Figure 4-2 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on gender 40
Figure 4-3 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on academic degree 42
Figure 4-4 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on the place of teaching English 44
Figure 4-5 The frequency of the answers to the pronunciation questions based on teaching experience 46

Abstract
Mastering pronunciation in EFL context, where direct access to native speaker is scarce, is a highly challenging objective for many language students in Iran. Derivative words more specifically, pose their own problems. There are different types of suffixes, two of which are neutral and non-neutral. This study examines the effects of the gender, experience, academic degree and the teaching place of English teachers on the pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes. The sample included 40 Ilamian EFL teachers teaching English at different high schools and institutes. None of teachers studied in English speaking countries. They were classified into two groups male and female with B.A. and M.A. degree who taught at different schools and institutes. To analyze data two kinds of test employed: The Man-Whitney U Test for gender, academic degree and place of teaching, and The Kruskal-Wallis for teaching experience. There is no treatment in this study. According to these two tests and the analyses of dependant and independent variables, it can be concluded that there is no meaningful differences between female and male answers in the pronunciation of neutral and non-neutral suffixes. Also the difference between teachers having M.A and B.A degree with the pronunciation of neutral and non-neutral suffixes is not meaningful. But there is a meaningful difference between teaching place and the pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes. Furthermore, conserning the last element, it can be said that there is no meaningful difference between three existed ranges of experience with the pronunciation of neutral and non-neutral suffixes.
Key words: pronunciation, derivative words, neutral suffixes, non-neutral suffixes

Chapter One
Introduction

1-1 Over view
The first chapter of this study addresses the introduction. It is organized in six major sections: a) introduction, b) statement of problem, c) research questions, e) research hypotheses, f) significance of the study and g) definition of the technical terms.

1-2 Introduction
When we think of English skills, the ‘four skills’ of listening, speaking, reading, and writing readily come to mind. Of course other skills such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and spelling all play a role in effective English communication (Bauer, Laurie, 1988).
Listening skills are vital for learners. Of the ‘four skills,’ listening is by far the most frequently used. Listening and speaking are often taught together, but beginners, especially non-literate ones, should be given more listening than speaking practice. It’s important to speak as close to natural speed as possible, although with beginners some slowing is usually necessary. Without reducing your speaking speed, you can make your language easier to comprehend by simplifying your vocabulary, using shorter sentences, and increasing the number and length of pauses in your speech (Teschner & Whitley, 2004; Fudge, 1984).
Speaking English is the main goal of many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk-takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative, but with many errors that could become hard-to-break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability. It’s a matter of quantity vs. quality, and neither approach is wrong. However, if the aim of speaking is communication and that does not require perfect English, then it makes sense to encourage quantity in your classroom. Break the silence and get students communicating with whatever English they can use, correct or not and selectively address errors that block communication. Speaking lessons often tie in pronunciation and grammar which are necessary for effective oral communication (Teschner & Whitley, 2004; Fudge, 1984).
We encounter a great variety of written language day to day — articles, stories, poems, announcements, letters, labels, signs, bills, recipes, schedules, questionnaires, cartoons, the list is endless. Literate adults easily recognize the distinctions of various types of texts (Teschner & Whitley, 2004; Fudge, 1984).
Good writing conveys a meaningful message and uses English well, but the message is more important than correct presentation. If you can understand the message or even part of it, your student has succeeded in communicating on paper and should be praised for that. For many adult ESL learners, writing skills will not be used much outside your class. This doesn’t mean that they shouldn’t be challenged to write, but you should consider their needs and balance your class time appropriately. Many adults who do not need to write will enjoy it for the purpose of sharing their thoughts and personal stories, and they appreciate a format where they can revise their work into better English than if they shared the same information orally (Celce-Murcia et al, 1996; Laroy, 1995).
Grammar is often named as a subject difficult to teach. Its technical language and complex rules can be intimidating (Gainesville, William (1987). Teaching a good grammar lesson is one thing, but what if you’re in the middle of a reading or speaking activity and a student has a grammar question? Some students may have studied grammar in their home countries and be surprised that you don’t understand, “Does passive voice always need the past participle?” But even if your student’s question is simple and jargon-free, explaining grammar is a skill you will need to acquire through practice. If you don’t know how to explain it on the spot, write down the specific sentence or structure in question and tell the student you will find out. There are several resources below that can help you understand and explain various grammar issues (Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. 1983).
One of the most difficult troubles

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