their ideas and thoughts through the sounds or letters. Language is vested in culture and the origin of spoken language is as old as humanity itself. Early human ancestors began using spoken language several million years ago. Humans began writing about 5,000 years ago. Language made it possible for human societies to develop. Language is the development of the basic form of communication between human beings, and in a society. And just as it is the basic form, it is also the most developed. We cannot communicate in any real sense without language.
Another research is Modern English by TanayKundu on November 2013. This research helped to discover some of the interesting findings of a survey conducted to determine how Modern English language came to us. The main issue of this research paper was total information about modern English. What is language chronicles? What is the period of modern English language? What is early modern English language? What is late modern English language? We have collected data by reading several books and read over internet. Its major findings were how we got modern English language. Though this research had been done with a small group of students, it revealed so many interesting and influential findings that will help us to know about history of modern English language.
Accent and Pronunciation by johnsonhuong that was done on November 2013 as the other research in the pronunciation area. Empirical studies are essential to improving our understanding of the relationship between accent and pronunciation teaching. However, the study of pronunciation has been marginalized within the ?eld of applied linguistics. As a result, teachers are often left to rely on their own intuitions with little direction. Although some instructors can successfully assist their students under these conditions, many others are reluctant to teach pronunciation. In this article we call for more research to enhance our knowledge of the nature of foreign accents and their effects on communication. Research of this type has much to offer to teachers and students in terms of helping them to set learning goals, identifying appropriate pedagogical priorities for the classroom, and determining the most effective approaches to teaching. We discuss these possibilities within a framework in which mutual intelligibility is the primary consideration, although social rami?cations of accent must also be taken into account. We describe several problem areas and identify some misconceptions about pronunciation instruction. In addition, we make suggestions for future research that would address intelligibility, functional load, computer-assisted language learning, and the role of the listener. Finally, we recommend greater collaboration between researchers and practitioners, such that more classroom relevant research is undertaken. The phenomenon that we call a foreign accent is a complex aspect of language that affects speakers and listeners in both perception and production and, consequently, in social interaction.
The Use of ESI to Improve Students English Pronunciation of Word Stress was done by Aree Tehlah, Rattaphum College, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Songkhla, Thailand in 2012. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the learners’ background knowledge of English pronunciation in terms of word stress; 2) to investigate the effectiveness of explicit suffixation instruction (ESI) in developing students’ English pronunciation; and 3) to investigate the learners’ satisfaction with explicit suffixation instruction in developing students’ English pronunciation. Subjects were 61 students of 2nd year Diploma program at Rattaphum College, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Songkhla province. They were divided into two groups: 31 students of the experimental group, and 30 students of the control group. This study was conducted throughout the first semester in academic year 2012 (May-September 2012). There were 4 instruments used in this study: 1) the pre-test; 2) the treatment about explicit suffixation instruction; 3) the post-test; and 4) the questionnaire. The findings showed that: 1) the learners’ background knowledge of English pronunciation in both groups was not significantly different; 2) the explicit suffixation instruction could enhance the knowledge of English pronunciation of the students in the experimental group and showed a significant difference at 0.01 level (t = 7.25); and 3) the learners’ overall satisfaction of the explicit suffixation instruction in developing English pronunciation was positively high (x = 3.84). This indicates that the explicit suffixation instruction can not only help students improve their English pronunciation, but it also enhances learners’ satisfaction with learning of English pronunciation in terms of word stress. This research study aimed to find out at which level the English pronunciation knowledge of learners before the experiment was, whether the explicit instruction could improve their knowledge of English pronunciation, and at which level students was satisfied with the explicit suffixation instruction of English pronunciation in terms of word stress. The details were described as follows.
Teaching and Learning of Pronunciation was done by Phool (2012). Pronunciation teaching is a prominent factor in foreign language teaching. Since sounds play an important role in communication, foreign language teachers must attribute proper importance to teaching pronunciation in their classes. However, this fact is very much neglected by many foreign language teachers. This paper is aimed at pinpointing the current situation in teaching and pronunciation especially in China. It summarized the background of pronunciation teaching, and the need for incorporating pronunciation into foreign language classes owing to regarding pronunciation as a key to gaining full communicative competence. The possible problems and the responding reasons be disused and some solutions also be pinpointed out in the paper. There had arisen many approaches and methods towards the teaching and learning of pronunciation and a relatively new approach called the prosody pyramid be introduced here, which may shed a light on the research.
Teaching Pronunciation to Adult English Language Learners was conducted by Kirsten Schaetzel, Georgetown Law Center, Washington, DC on July 2009. Recent discussion of and research on the teaching and learning of pronunciation had focused on the following issues: the importance of accent, stress, intonation, and rhythm in the comprehensibility of the speech of nonnative speakers; the effects of motivation and exposure on the development of native-like pronunciation; and the intelligibility of speech among speakers of different English varieties. Although there are challenges to teaching and learning English pronunciation, it is an area vital to adult English language learners’ communicative competence. Recent research has shed light on pronunciation features to be taught and on learners’ goals and motivations for improving their pronunciation. By incorporating current research and its implications into their teaching practice, teachers can help learners gain the skills they need for effective communication in English.
Improving Adult ESL Learners’ Pronunciation Skills was done by MaryAnn Cunningham Florez who had studied at National Center for ESL Literacy Education on December 1998. According to this research it can be said Pronunciation can be one of the most difficult parts of a language for adult learners to master and one of the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the classroom. Nevertheless, with careful preparation and integration, pronunciation can play an important role in supporting learners’ overall communicative power.
Level Ordering: A Model for Suffix Combinations is another study in suffixes area which was conducted by Asst.Inst.Wasan Noori Fadhil . This model assumes that English affixes belong to different strata and that these strata interact phonologically and morphologically in intricate ways. This is called level ordering. This paper deals with level ordering as a model for suffix combinations and to what extent can we depend on level ordering in order to provide a correct order of suffix combinations. The main conclusion of this paper is that level ordering helps us to say that English affixes belong to different strata and that stratum 1 is distinguished from stratum 2 phonologically, morphologically and semantically. Most importantly, the order of affixes is constrained by a certain restriction that stratum 1 affixes cannot occur outside stratum 2 affixes. However, level ordering does not prove a powerful model for affix combinations since it encounters serious problems. These problems involve some counterexamples to the above restriction, dual-class affixes and racketing paradoxes. Thus, we have to look for another model for affix combinations.
Also The Syntax of Turkish Pre-Stressing Suffixes was done by Kabak & ogel (2001) and Kornfilt & Kahnemuyipour (2006). The ‘pre-stressing’ suffixes in Turkish have attracted considerable attention because these suffixes change the placement of the word stress in an otherwise fixed stress language. They proposed that the model of phonological mapping proposed by Samuels (2008, in progress) can best handle cases of pre-stressing in the verbal domain of Turkish that are left problematic by the existing analyses. Specifically, they have argued that NegP is below vPin Turkish which derives the sentential stress effects, and QP
1.2 Speech acts 5 1.3 The Speech Act of Refusal 6 1.4 Explicit instruction for developing pragmatic knowledge 7 1.5 Statement of the problem 8 1.6 Research question and hypothesis 9 1.7 Significance of the ادامه مطلب…