s facing non-native speakers of English is pronunciation. It is usually the largest obstacle to overcome when trying to achieve fluency.
Pronunciation is an integral part of second or foreign language learning since it directly affects learners’ communicative competence as well as performance on the career. It is the primary medium for communication in which people share ideas and understandings with each other (Jenkins, 2000). Correct pronunciation is an important factor determining the meaningfulness and success of communication.
Pronunciation involves far more than individual sounds. As defined by Peter Roach (2004), pronunciation has been viewed as the sum of three components. The components are sounds, stress and intonation. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and word linking all influence the sound of spoken English, not to mention the way we often slur words and phrases together in casual speech (Roach, 2004). ‘What are you going to do?’ becomes ‘Whaddaya gonna do?’ English pronunciation involves too many complexities for learners to strive for a complete elimination of accent, but improving pronunciation will boost self esteem, facilitate communication, and possibly lead to a better job or at least more respect in the workplace. Effective communication is of greatest importance, so choose first to work on problems that significantly hinder communication and let the rest go (Jenkins, 2000). Remember that your students also need to learn strategies for dealing with misunderstandings, since native pronunciation is for most an unrealistic goal. A student’s first language often interferes with English pronunciation. For example, /p/ is aspirated in English but not in Spanish, so when a Spanish speaker pronounces ‘pig’ without a puff of air on the /p/, an American may hear ‘big’ instead (Freyd, P., & Baron, J. 1982). Sometimes the students will be able to identify specific problem sounds and sometimes they won’t. You can ask them for suggestions, but you will also need to observe them over time and make note of problem sounds. Another challenge resulting from differences in the first language is the inability to hear certain English sounds that the native language does not contain. Often these are vowels, as in ‘ship’ and ‘sheep,’ which many learners cannot distinguish. The Japanese are known for confusing /r/ and /l/, as their language contains neither of these but instead has one sound somewhere between the two. For problems such as these, listening is crucial because students can’t produce a sound they can’t hear (Dalton, D. 2002). Descriptions of the sound and mouth position can help students increase their awareness of subtle sound differences (Morley, J. 1991).
Central to lexical morphology is theprinciple that the morphological component of a grammar is organized in a series of heiarchical strata (cf. Allen, 1978; Siegel, 1974; Pesetsky, 1979; Kiparasky, 1982a, 1982b, 1983, 1985; Mohanan, 1982,1986; Mohanan and Mohanan, 1984; Halle and Mohanan, 1985; Strauss, 1982a; and Pulleyblank, 1986).
Katamba (1947) states that English affixes (both prefixes and suffixes) can be grouped in two classes on the basis of their phonological behavior. One type is neutral and the other type is non-neutral. Neutral affixes have no phonological effect on the base to which they have attached, but non-neutral ones affect in some way the consonant or vowel segments, or the location of the stress in the base to which they are attached, they also tend to trigger changes in the shape of vowels or consonants of the base to which they are added. In SPE (this is the standard way of referring to Chomsky and Halle’s 1968 book, The Sound Pattern of English) the difference between the behavior of neutral and non-neutral affixes was dealt with in terms of the strength of boundaries. Between the base and a neutral suffix like -ness or -ly, there was said to intervene a strong boundary (symbolized by ‘#’). In contrast, a weak boundary (symbolized by ‘+’) was assumed to separate the base from a non-neutral suffix like -ic, -ee, or -th. The distinction between non-neutral affixes (associated with ‘+boundary’ in SPE) and neutral affixes (associated with ‘#boundary’) corresponds roughly to the more traditional distinction between primary and secondary affixes (Whitney, 1889; Bloomfield, 1933).
The neutral/non-neutral distinction corresponds to the more traditional distinction between primary (= non-neutral) and secondary (= neutral) affixes and the classic distinction of weak boundary (‘#’) between neutral suffix and base vs. strong boundary (‘+’) between non-neutral suffix and base in SPE.
Formal training basically refers to a course of instruction that has particular objectives of learning and is conducted outside the workplace. Formal training is important as it ensures that your workforce is equipped to handle the job. Some jobs require on the job training but most jobs require one to go to school and receive the necessary qualifications in order to be able to do the job. It is time consuming and costly to correct mistakes made by untrained staff. Training is important because when you don’t know how to do something and you get trained for it, you will eventually learn how to do it (Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. 1983).
1-3 Statement of problem
A large part of learning English is about the learning of the pronouncing derivative words. They also called derived form in grammar, form that has undergone derivation from another, as atomic from atom. According to Freyd, P., & Baron, J. (1982) derivative words are problematic especially in pronunciation for EFL teachers and students. The usefulness of teaching pronunciation is a widely debated subject in the language teaching world. Some of the current research would suggest that teachers can make little or no difference in improving their students’ pronunciation. In contrast, there is research that indicates that the teacher can make a noticeable difference if certain criteria, such as the teaching of suprasegmentals are fulfilled. One of the most difficult troubles facing non-native speakers of English is pronunciation. It is usually the largest obstacle to overcome when trying to achieve fluency. That is why; the issue of pronunciation has been dealt with in this M.A thesis.
1-4 Research questions
1. Is there any relationship between teachers’ gender and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes?
2 Is there any relationship between teachers’ academic degree and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes?
3 Is there any difference between high school teachers and institute teachers in pronouncing the neutral and non-neutral suffixes?
4. Is there any relationship between teachers’ experience and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes?
1-5 Research hypotheses
H01. There is no relationship between teachers’ gender and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes.
H02. There is no relationship between teachers’ academic degree and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes.
H03. There is no relationship between teaching place and the way of pronouncing the neutral and non-neutral suffixes.
H04. There is no relationship between teachers’ experience and their pronunciation of the neutral and non-neutral suffixes.
1-6 Significance of the study
One of the neglected aspects of teaching language is the way of pronouncing derivative words, so pronouncing derivative words and neutral and non-neutral suffixes are problematic for teachers to teach on one hand, and for learners on the other hand. In this study we examine the effect of four factors on the way of pronouncing derivative and neutral and non-neutral suffixes to show the differences. The results of this study produce awareness about pronunciation of the words especially derivative words.
1-7 Definitions of technical terms
Neutral affix have no phonological effect on the base to which they have attached (Katamba 1947).
abstract – abstractness,
serious – seriousness,
alert – alertness’
home – homeless,
power – powerless,
paper – paperless
Non-neutral affix affect in some way the consonant or vowel segments, or the location of the stress in the base to which they are attached, they also tend to trigger changes in the shape of vowels or consonants of the base to which they are added (Katamba 1947).
strategy – strategic,
morpheme – morphemic,
photograph – photographic
employ – employee,
detain – detainee,
absent – absentee
-ic is a pre-accenting suffix (syllable immediately before it is stressed)
-ee is an auto-stressed suffix (attracts the stress itself)
Pronunciation is one of the English skills that involves far more than individual sounds. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and word linking all influence the sound of spoken English (Jenkins, 2000).
Derivative word is a word formed from another by derivation, such as electricity from electric (Freyd, P., & Baron, J. 1982).
This chapter of this study organized in five major sections: the first section is Iranian studies, then foreign studies, after that theoretical base of the study, it followed by